In some cases, when performing certain routines, smothering is combined with simultaneous compressive asphyxia. Smothering[ edit ] "Smother" redirects here. Risk factors include large or obese adults, parental fatigue or impairment sedation by drugs or alcohol of the co-sleeping adult and a small shared sleeping space for example, both adult and infant sharing a couch. Therefore, passive deaths following custody restraint that are presumed to be the result of positional asphyxia may actually be examples of asphyxia occurring during the restraint process. This occurs mostly during restraint and handcuffing situations by law enforcement, including psychiatric incidents. Perinatal asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen hypoxia to a newborn infant long enough to cause apparent harm.
The weight of the restraint s doing the compression may contribute to what is attributed to positional asphyxia. Positional asphyxia Compressive asphyxia also called chest compression is mechanically limiting expansion of the lungs by compressing the torso, hence interfering with breathing. This can occur as a result of inadequate circulation or perfusion , impaired respiratory effort, or inadequate ventilation. It results most commonly from a drop in maternal blood pressure or interference during delivery with blood flow to the infant's brain. This occurs mostly during restraint and handcuffing situations by law enforcement, including psychiatric incidents. This is what occurred at the Ibrox disaster in , where 66 Rangers fans died; the The Who concert disaster where 11 died; the Luzhniki disaster in , when 66 FC Spartak Moscow fans died; and at the Hillsborough disaster in , 96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death in an overcrowded terrace, 95 of the 96 victims died from compressive asphyxia, with 93 dying directly from it and 2 others dying from related complications. Therefore, passive deaths following custody restraint that are presumed to be the result of positional asphyxia may actually be examples of asphyxia occurring during the restraint process. Compressive asphyxia occurs when the chest or abdomen is compressed posteriorly. Such techniques are used either to tire the opponent or as complementary or distractive moves in combination with pinning holds ,  or sometimes even as submission holds. Chest compression is also featured in various grappling combat sports, where it is sometimes called wringing. For other uses, see Smother disambiguation. Perinatal asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen hypoxia to a newborn infant long enough to cause apparent harm. In fatal crowd disasters , compressive asphyxia from being crushed against the crowd causes the large part of the deaths, rather than blunt trauma from trampling. In a normal situation, smothering requires at least partial obstruction of both the nasal cavities and the mouth to lead to asphyxia. They killed the usually intoxicated victims by sitting on their chests and suffocating them by putting a hand over their nose and mouth, while using the other hand to push the victim's jaw up. The corpses had no visible injuries, and were supplied to medical schools for money. Smothering[ edit ] "Smother" redirects here. An example of traumatic asphyxia includes cases where an individual has been using a car-jack to repair a car from below, and is crushed under the weight of the vehicle. In cases of co-sleeping "overlay" , the weight of an adult or large child may compress an infant's chest, preventing proper expansion of the chest. Smothering with the hands or chest is used in some combat sports to distract the opponent, and create openings for transitions , as the opponent is forced to react to the smothering. The death can be in the vehicle, or following loss of consciousness to be followed by death while in a coma, having presented with anoxic brain damage. The asphyxia can be caused by facial compression, neck compression, or chest compression. In some cases, when performing certain routines, smothering is combined with simultaneous compressive asphyxia. Risk factors include large or obese adults, parental fatigue or impairment sedation by drugs or alcohol of the co-sleeping adult and a small shared sleeping space for example, both adult and infant sharing a couch. One example is overlay, in which an adult accidentally rolls over onto an infant during co-sleeping , an accident that often goes unnoticed and is mistakenly thought to be sudden infant death syndrome.
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