Each strategy has its benefits Sexual strategies form their own behavioral ecosystem within society, so that each works partly because the other strategies are being used by other people. Criticisms and Shortcomings As far as criticisms, which is what the question asked for, let's see All practices no doubt including homosexuality confer some advantage to the human specie as a whole, which is why they exist and continue. Because each gender is in a different situation, due primarily to women being pregnant for 9 months, and human infants being helpless for many years. Is it better to be a "good girl" and loyal wife?
Evolution has coded these behavioral strategies into the genetically-determined wiring of the brain. Why are men and women different in terms of their bodies, brains, and sexual behavior? The stories about the variation in human sexual behavior are fascinating monogamy, adultery, polygamy, homosexuality, mating strategies, marriage , but it is easy to get lost in the details. Because each gender is in a different situation, due primarily to women being pregnant for 9 months, and human infants being helpless for many years. This is why those practices exist and continue as human behavioral drives. And while I have not read the book itself, I have read summaries and am familiar with the general framework. One key idea that I think is missed or not sufficiently emphasized in the book is this: Other examples of conflicting strategies include monogamy vs. Criticisms and Shortcomings As far as criticisms, which is what the question asked for, let's see Because it increases the efficiency of evolutionary adaptation by allowing the best traits discovered by random mutation to be exchanged, collected, and concentrated. Most practices homosexuality being a likely exception confer some strategic advantage in terms of reproductive success to the individuals that employ them. Each strategy has its benefits Sexual strategies form their own behavioral ecosystem within society, so that each works partly because the other strategies are being used by other people. The story behind this paradox is complex, and the stereotypes are misleading due to all the subtleties going on, but it does exist as an archetypal contradiction within human culture. I think Ridley overemphasizes the role of parasites. All practices no doubt including homosexuality confer some advantage to the human specie as a whole, which is why they exist and continue. And why do males seem to want to have sex with one, but marry the other? Or is it better to be a sexually adventuresome female and seduce the most desirable male? Multiple conflicting and contradictory strategies coexist within both culture and human biology for several reasons: There is not one best sexual strategy. For a social specie such as humans, who form unusually complex and sophisticated community structures family, social circle, tribe, community, village, society, civilization , selection and survival at the level of the community unit may be more important as an evolutionary pressure than individual reproductive success. Furthermore, this evolution is cultural as much as it is genetic. In fact, culture can even accelerate and shape genetic evolution by guiding its hand, if you will. Is it better to be a "good girl" and loyal wife? It completely changed my way of looking at human behavior, sex, relationships, and the tension between evolution and the human behavior that is controlled by the brain. The big picture is that: Parasites are certainly one of the many threats to organisms, but are they the most important threat, or the one most related to the evolutionary development of sexual reproduction? This thesis is fairly consistent with what any evolutionary biologist would say, and is closely aligned with Robert Wright's book The Moral Animal, which I have read and thought was amazing.
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