Due to this fact, they made a rather small impact on the development of future civilizations, especially when compared to the Egyptians and Sumerians. Artifacts recognizable as religious symbols have been found throughout the area, especially near the stone pyramids for which the Norte Chico civilization is famous. Numerous water springs flow all across the area, which researchers believe may have led to the legend of Bahrain being the Biblical Garden of Eden. This is currently nothing more than a theory, but it helps explain other cultural declines in the area as well. Situated along the borders of Sumer and Akkad, the land of Elam was similar to its neighbors, although its language was altogether unique. They also developed intricate irrigation systems, sophistication which was unheard of in the Americas at that time.
They were also extremely organized—the houses of the Vinca civilization had specific locations for trash, and the dead were all buried in a central location. Their population probably existed as a majority for decades—if not centuries—while they were under the aristocratic rule of the Hittites, before they eventually faded away into obscurity. Dilmun was a major commercial player in its day, with control over the Persian Gulf trading lanes and a communication network that reached as far away as Turkey. Due to this fact, they made a rather small impact on the development of future civilizations, especially when compared to the Egyptians and Sumerians. Whatever the case, there is no denying that they were an influence on later South American cultures, such as the Chavin civilization, which began a few hundred years after the fall of the Norte Chicos. This is currently nothing more than a theory, but it helps explain other cultural declines in the area as well. Saar is still being investigated, but a large number of the artifacts that have already been found there date to the third millennium B. One of their largest cities is known as Urkesh and is located in northeastern Syria. Most archaeologists believe that they were indigenous to the area preceding the more famous Hittite civilization, which arrived in the 23rd century B. Long believed to be mainly nomadic, scholars now believe that the Hurrians may have had a much bigger impact than previously thought, mostly due to the way their language differed from other Semitic and Indo-European tongues. Ji-Elle Named after the area in Nigeria in which artifacts of their culture were first discovered, the Nok civilization flourished during the first millennium B. Scholars differ on where they believe the civilization was, with a range from South Africa all the way up the coast to the Middle East. In addition, they were artistic and fond of children; archaeologists have found various toys, such as animals and rattles, buried among the other artifacts. Usually, indicators like a form of art and a sense of urbanization are key, but the Norte Chico civilization possessed neither of these. Perhaps the best-known examples of their artistic nature are the terra-cotta figures which have been found throughout the area. The reason for this assumption is that no evidence for copper smelting has ever been found, which was a precursor to an iron age in nearly every other civilization. Urkesh is also where the earliest known text in Hurrian, a stone tablet and statue known as the Louvre lion, was found. They also developed intricate irrigation systems, sophistication which was unheard of in the Americas at that time. In fact, most of what we know about the Hattians comes from the widespread adoption of their culture by the Hittites. There is some debate over whether or not they qualify as a civilization, as well as what that term even means. Personal and place names written in the Hurrian language were found in Mesopotamian records dating back to the third millennium B. Like many of the civilizations of Mesoamerica, the Zapotecs subjugated the surrounding areas through a mix of warfare, diplomacy, and tribute. Rama Another civilization which influenced the Hittites was the Hurrian people, who lived throughout the Middle East during the second millennium B. Believed to be the earliest urban settlers of the area, their existence can be traced to 24th-century Akkadian cuneiform tablets. Rod Waddington While most people are familiar with the Aztecs and the Maya of Mesoamerica, the people known as the Zapotec remain relatively obscure.
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