The University of Texas held its first classes in , although classes had been held in the original wooden state capitol for four years before. On August 1, , the first auction of out of lots total was held. Travis County was established in , and the surrounding counties were mostly established within the next two decades. Over time, the long-running television program Austin City Limits, its namesake Austin City Limits Festival, and the South by Southwest music festival solidified the city's place in the music industry. The block grid plan was bisected by a broad north-south thoroughfare, Congress Avenue, running up from the river to Capital Square, where the new Texas State Capitol was to be constructed. The men and women who traveled mainly from Houston to conduct government business were intensely disappointed as well. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president, congress, and monetary system. But Lamar's political enemy, Sam Houston , used two Mexican army incursions to San Antonio as an excuse to move the government. The area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene Ice Age and are linked to the Clovis culture around BC 11, years ago , based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site , midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood.
These projects were enabled in large part because the Public Works Administration provided Austin with greater funding for municipal construction projects than other Texas cities. After most housing deeds prohibited African Americans and sometimes other nonwhite groups from using land. A temporary one-story capitol was erected on the corner of Colorado and 8th Streets. In , the U. In , the city occupied a total area of Some of the clays have pronounced shrink-swell properties and are difficult to work under most moisture conditions. The men and women who traveled mainly from Houston to conduct government business were intensely disappointed as well. Mansfield Dam and the foot of Lake Travis are located within the city's limits. The growth generated by this boom largely passed by Austin at first, with the city slipping from fourth largest to 10th largest in Texas between and The voting by the fourth President of the Republic, Anson Jones , and Congress, who reconvened in Austin in , settled the issue to keep Austin the seat of government, as well as annex the Republic of Texas into the United States. After Vice President Mirabeau B. The sport-climbing routes at Barton Creek Greenbelt—with its many vertical to overhanging walls—offer challenges to both the beginner and advanced climber. Over time, the long-running television program Austin City Limits, its namesake Austin City Limits Festival, and the South by Southwest music festival solidified the city's place in the music industry. The area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene Ice Age and are linked to the Clovis culture around BC 11, years ago , based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site , midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. The Comanches and Lipan Apaches were also known to travel through the area. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills, waterways, and pleasant surroundings. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo -hunting expedition between and , he proposed that the republic's capital, then in Houston , be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River near the present-day Congress Avenue Bridge. A popular point of prominence in Austin is Mount Bonnell. Upon threats of Mexican troops in Texas, Houston raided the Land Office to transfer all official documents to Houston for safe keeping in what was later known as the Archive War , but the people of Austin would not allow this unaccompanied decision to be executed. On August 1, , the first auction of out of lots total was held. The lakes also provide venues for boating, swimming, and other forms of recreation within several parks on the lake shores. By , the population had risen to , of whom nearly half fled from Austin when Congress recessed. Many of Austin's soils, especially the clay-rich types, are slightly to moderately alkaline and have free calcium carbonate. Deed restrictions also played an important role in residential segregation. Census Bureau reported Austin's population as
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